Election violence: What solution for victims?


With the Presidential, National Assembly, governorship and state Assembly elections held, though supplemental elections were purchased in 6 states by the Independent National Electoral Commission, INEC, following their inconclusiveness, a brand-new date of March 23, has, nevertheless, been repaired for supplemental elections to be kept in those states, specifically: Benue, Kano, Sokoto, Bauchi, Plateau and Adamawa.

With the elections nearly out of the method, attention is slowly moving completely to the tribunals.

As a matter of reality, the Governmental prospect of individuals’s Democratic Celebration, PDP, Atiku Abubabar is at the tribunal currently. One typical function in the just-concluded February 23 and March 9 elections is the violence that characterised the procedure. About 30 individuals were stated to have actually been eliminated throughout the Presidential and National Assembly elections of February23

About the very same number was eliminated throughout the governorship and state Assembly elections. Aside the deaths tape-recorded, lots of are still in the health centers on account of injuries sustained throughout the surveys.

This edition of Lead Law and Human being Rights, includes 2 attorneys, Mr Macaulay Ugwummadu, who is likewise Chairman of Committee for the Defence of Human Being Rights, CDHR and Chief Morah Ekwunoh, Principal Partner at M.C. Ekwunoh & Co, as they composed on solutions readily available to victims of election violence.



Electoral Act must be modified to secure Nigerians throughout elections— Ekwunoh.

The current orgies of violence which stressed the just recently held elections in Nigeria, especially in relation to the governmental election, have actually required concise evaluation of the location of our laws in help, support and defense of their many victims, in line with the legal maxim and aphorism of ubi jus ibi remedium.

States popular in the most regrettable unleashment of violence on sea of innocent residents, who trooped out, in droves, in patriotic action to clarion requires efficiency and discharge of civil responsibilities and duties to the nation, consist of, however are not restricted to, Rivers, Lagos, Borno, Adamawa, Kano, Kwara, Kaduna and Akwa Ibom. In these and other states, many individuals who went to cleanse the streams of democracy wound up in mortuaries and, if fortunate, in healthcare facility wards.

No doubt, sponsorship of the acts of violence develops, primarily, from political leaders, either with their celebrations’ below ground assistance, or of their own specific movements, with its cinders being fanned more in geo-political locations where efficiencies of such celebrations and political leaders are anticipated to be abysmally low.

Unfortunately, wide variety of chastening arrangements in the Electoral Act, 2010, as modified, versus perpetuation of electoral violence, though couched in great platitudes, never ever frontally resolved direct therapeutic concerns germane to violent afrontations, appurtenant to such victims, personally.

Such arrangements as areas 94, 95, 96, 98, 126, 128 and 131 of the Act simply enact laws versus such extremely wicked actions, as screen or usage of physical force, violence, browbeating, incitement, disorderly performs and good manners, ownership of offending weapons, excessive impact, infliction, or hazard of infliction, of physical or spiritual injuries, kidnapping, pressure and associated criminalities, without converse arrangements regarding useful solutions such as restitution in integrum arrangements, open and accruable to such victims. This is definitely, a sorry and regrettable lacuna in the Act.

With the regrettable lacuna in the Electoral Act (supra), victims of such electoral violence have no option than to draw on, and consider, the arrangements of both the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999, (as modified); and the African Charter on Human Being and Peoples’ Rights, (Ratification and Enforcement), as encapsulated in Volume 1, Cap.A9, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, to which Nigeria is a leading signatory, in the comity of African countries.

When it comes to constitutional solutions, arrangements in Chapter 4 thereof supplies clear legal roadmaps for victims’ enforcement of infringed basic rights, as might inure to them. Areas 33 (1 ), 35 (1 ), 41, 44 and 46 (1 ), to name a few, of the Constitution (supra) easily can be found in help of such victims.

Likewise, African Charter on Human Being and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement Treatment) Act (supra), likewise, supplies the fulcrum and center upon which the engine of solutions revolve in favour of victims. Parts of its pertinent arrangements in this regard consist of Articles 4, 5, 6, 12, 13 and14 thereof.Also exist are solutions under the typical law of torts, under which the victims can take legal action against under a various and unique treatment.

In view of the apparent lacuna in the Electoral Act, as revealed above, legal intervention, through immediate change of the Act, with a view to sufficiently not just offering much-needed defense for countless Nigerians throughout elections, however likewise managing them, or their next-of-kin, in case of death, commensurate restitutions.

Here, enactments by some states, led by Lagos State, that made appropriate arrangements in their Administration of Lawbreaker Justice Laws for payment of such victims of electoral violence, can offer appropriate design template.

In this method, the ‘aladdin cavern’ brazenness with which such violence is let loose on the citizenry will be wiped out and made an antique of the unsightly past, therefore not just understanding the loudable goals and intendments of the Electoral Act.

Wrongdoers of the abhorrent acts will likewise be penalized for their wicked behaviours, and made examples of, in the total public interest. The victims or their relations, as the case might be, on their parts, will have the deep larceration of sensations caused on them relieved


Victims can approach courts for redress— Ugwummadu.

Definitely, the country can neither pay for nor be indifferent to the effects of election-related violence and human rights abuses.

Under the Electoral Act 2010, a couple of election-related violent behaviours and abuses might be discovered in Areas 117( 1 )( a) handling acts of ruining, damaging & getting rid of notifications of files needed for registration; 128 associating with basic disorderly performs at election; 129( 1 )( f)( i)( j) handling offenses on election day and in specific, remaining in ownership of offending and harmful weapons, loitering without reason, nabbing and damaging electoral products respectively and 131( 1 )( a) &( b) associating with the basic behaviour of hazard of usage of force and causing injury.

The following solutions are readily available for victims of electoral violence and abuses.

( a) Prosecution: Where the declared violent act total up to a straight-out criminal offense so explained and punishable under our criminal laws, then the State should discover the will to condemn and reveal sufficient animosity by apprehending, examining and prosecuting the offender at the request of the victim who must be the plaintiff and a possible witness in the prosecution.

( b) Under S.150 of the very same Electoral Act 2010, the Commission, INEC, is empowered to prosecute the offender which might bring in some remedial/restitutive reliefs in favour of the victim depending upon the injury triggered.

( c) Settlement and Restitution: Depending upon the scale of the violence and effect, the Federal government of the day might make up a panel of questions whether judicial or administrative, with a view to determining the real degree of injury, abuse or deprivation and sufficiently compensate and fix up the victims.

( d) Enforcement of Essential Human Rights: Where the declared violent behaviour and abuses experienced total up to a breach of the basic rights of the victim, (s) he schedules the right under S.46 of the 1999 Constitution and Ord.2 of the Essential Rights( Enforcement Treatment) Guidelines 2009 can approach either the State or Federal High Court of the State where it struck look for redress over the infraction.

( e) Disciplinary action: The victim can submit a petition to the pertinent greater authorities versus recognized person( s) or state practical with a view to guaranteeing that disciplinary steps or possible prosecution are started under the extant laws.

( e) Settlement: The victim can set up an action for the enforcement of his basic right and claim appropriate payment versus the specific and the organization that he represents if the infraction is committed by operators of the coercive organization.


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